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Items filtered by date: Sunday, 17 September 2017

17 Sep 2017 - The Montreal Protocol: Closing the Hole in the Ozone Layer

The 16th of September 2017 heralds the 30th Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol – an international treaty which aims to repair and protect the Earth’s ozone layer.  To celebrate this special occasion and the immense significance of this Protocol, Iran today – one day later – hosted an event at the Department of Environment focusing on this year’s theme of “caring for all life under the sun.”

Addressing guests at today’s event, Mr. Gary Lewis, UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative, spoke about the Montreal Protocol’s success.  He referred in particular to the fact that there has been an almost 100% phasing-out of ODSs.  Consequently, after years of depletion, the ozone layer is beginning to thicken.

Mr. Lewis described the significant role Iran has played in countering ozone depletion.  Iran established an office for the protection of the ozone layer in 1994, after joining the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol.  Iran has, according to Mr. Lewis, demonstrated regional best practices through the successful programmes carried out by its National Ozone Unit.  The success of this unit has been enhanced by strong and willing collaboration between the unit, the Department of Environment, international agencies such as UNDP, UNIDO and UN Environment and the support from the Government of Germany. 

This cooperation would be extended under a new project due to start at the end of 2017.  Mr. Lewis also called upon Iran to join the Kigali Protocol. This is the latest effort of the global community to counter ODSs.

20170917 undp02From left: Dr. Ali Nazaridoust, UNDP Head of Programme, Mr. Gary Lewis, UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative

Also speaking at the ceremony, the newly appointed Vice-President of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Head of the Department of Environment, Dr. Isa Kalantari, complimented the success of Iran’s Ozone Project.  Mr. Kalantari stated, “We hope that the success of this project will be a milestone in the implementation of national programmes so that we can deal with many environmental problems such as waste, soil degradation, waste water and the protection of wildlife.”

The ozone layer is crucial to the survival of planet Earth.  Why?  Because it is a layer in the Earth’s stratosphere which absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation reaching Earth from the sun.  In the 1980s, scientists discovered that a hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica was widening.  International alarm bells began to ring.  Immediate efforts began by the international community to set about repairing the hole and preserving the ozone layer. 

On 16 September 1987, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was unanimously ratified by 197 countries.  The treaty’s objective was to cut the production and consumption of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs).  CFCs are known to most of us as coolants in refrigerants and aerosol cans.  Climate scientists discovered that the use of these substances were in large part to blame for the worsening of the hole in the ozone layer.  

Referring to the latest revision of the Montreal Protocol which was agreed to in Kigali, Rwanda on 15 October 2016, Mr. Lewis stated that it offers many opportunities to protect the environment by improving refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.  “All of this,” Lewis said,  “improves energy efficiency, which corresponds to our SDG 7.”

The latest effort to deal with dangerous ODS focuses on hydrofluorocarbons (or HFCs).  “Phasing-out hydrofluorocarbons,” Mr. Lewis said, “was agreed to in the Kigali Amendment which took place in Rwanda on 15 October 2016.”  Mr. Lewis encouraged the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran to take the important step of reviewing and then approving this Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.  He stated that it was crucial not just for Iran, but all countries, to collaborate with industry, governmental bodies and civil society to adopt greener technologies.


شهریور 96 - برنامه عمران ملل متحد: گزارش موفقیت های پروژه ازُن

به دنبال شکل ­گیری و مشاهده حفره ی اوزن روی قطب جنوب توسط سنجشگرهای ماهواره­­ هواشناسی در اوایل دهه هفتاد میلادی کشورهای توسعه یافته جهان در سال 1985 در وین گردهم آمده تا سیاستگذاری لازم برای مبارزه با تخریب لایه اوزن را تهیه کنند. بعد از گزارش نگران کننده گروه علمی و تحقیقاتی در خصوص حفره اوزن روی جنوبگان در سال 1987 پروتکل مونترال توسط 46 کشور جهان پذیرفته شد.

دفتر حفاظت لایه اوزن در جمهوری اسلامی ایران پس از تأئید مجلس شورای اسلامی و به تصویب درآمدن کنوانسیون وین و پروتکل مونترال به منظور اجرای مصوبات پروتکل، با همکاری سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست و برنامه عمران سازمان ملل متحد از سال 1373 شروع به کار کرد.

این پروژه فعالیت های متعددی را در راستای پروتکل مونترال و کمک به ترمیم لایه اوزن انجام داده که در ادامه به برخی از آنها اشاره می کنیم:

- حذف حدود 1770 تن ماده مخرب لایه اوزن تحت همین پروژه با انتقال فن آوری سازگار با لایه اوزن به واحدهای تولیدکنندگان انواع اسفنج، تأمین کنندگان مواد شیمیایی اولیه، تولیدکنندگان یخچال، تولیدکنندگان سیستمهای تهویه مطبوع با همکاری آژانس­های اجرایی همکار در طرح ملی حفاظت از لایه اوزن.

- استقرار بانک فیزیکی هالون با همکاری سازمان مدیریت پسماند مشهد و سازمان توسعه صنعتی ملل متحد و تجهیز مرکز به دستگاه­های جمع آوری بازیافت هالون

- تهیه و  تدوین کتاب "راهکارهایی برای کاهش نشتی و انتشار گازهای HCFC در سیستمهای سرمایشی سوپرمارکتها"

- استقرار سیستم صدور مجوز واردات و صادرات مواد مخرب لایه اوزن و کالاهای مبتنی بر آن تحت بند 4 پروتکل و اصلاحیه مونترال از طریق پنجره واحد تجارت فرامرزی گمرک ایران.

-  استقرار سیستم تبادل اطلاعات واردات و صادرات مواد مخرب اوزن تحت عنوان iPIC در چهارچوب همکاری­های منطقه­ای و بین المللی برنامه محیط زیست سازمان ملل متحد.

- برگزاري بيش از 50 كارگاه آموزشي در سطح كشور براي تعميركاران يخچال، كولر خودرو، مهندسان كارخانه­ هاي خودرو سازي، كارشناسان گمرك و غیره. 

-  برگزاری دوره های آموزشی برای کودکان، تهیه بسته های دانش بنیان و تولید انیمیشن­های اجتماعی به منظور آگاهی افزایی در میان اقشار گوناگون مردم.

با توجه به دستاوردهای بالا، دفتر لایه ازون در جمهوری اسلامی ایران یکی از موفق ترین دفاتر در این زمینه شناخته می شود.

جمهوری اسلامی ايران در بخش پروژه­هاي تبدیل خطهای تولیدی با مواد سازگار لایه اوزن و توانمدسازی ذینفعان آنها يكی از كشورهاي پيشرو عضو پروتكل مونترال محسوب مي­شود و كليه مصوبات پروتكل را طبق جدول زمانبندي به مرحله اجرا درآورده به نحوي كه موفق به دريافت لوح تقدير گرديده است.




17 Sep 2017 – UNDP Iran: Ozone project success story

After the discovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole and the realization of the challenges associated with the depletion of the ozone layer in the 1970s, countries gathered in Vienna in 1985 to establish appropriate policies and guidelines for developed countries to fight and further prevent its depletion.  After the concerning reports from the scientific community on the depletion of the ozone layer, the Montreal Protocol was endorsed by 46 countries worldwide in 1987.

In 1994, after joining the Vienna convention and Montreal Protocol, Iran established an office for the protection of ozone layer in order to enforce the policies set by the protocol in partnership with the Department of Environment and UNDP.

The Islamic Republic of Iran is considered one of the leading member states in projects using ozone compatible material and engaging and training stakeholders consistent with the Montreal Protocol. Iran has met and enforced all Montreal Protocol resolutions according to the timeline and was granted certificate of appreciation in this regard.

During the 23 years that this project has been active in line with the Montreal Protocol it has helped restore the ozone layer in many instances which some are mentioned here.

  • Elimination of approximately 1770 tons of ozone depleting substances – these numbers were achieved by transferring technologies that are non-harmful to the ozone layer to factories producing various sponge types, while providing non-harmful chemical raw material to producers of refrigerators and air conditioners in partnership with the executive agencies in the National Ozone Layer Protection Plan.
  • Establishment of the Halon Banking and Recycling in cooperation with the Mashhad Waste Management Organization and the UNDP.
  • Preparation and publication of the book "Solutions to reduce leakage and emissions of HCFCs in supermarket cooling systems".
  • Establishment of licensing system for the import and export of ozone depleting substances and its products based on article 4 of the protocol and the amendment through Transboundary Customs Office of Iran.
  • In the framework of IPIC - Establishment of an information exchange system for the import and export of ozone-depleting substances under the regional and international partnerships of UN Environment.
  • Organization of more than 50 workshops around the country for repairmen of refrigerator and automobile air-conditioning systems, engineers at automobile factories, customs officials, etc.
  • Organization and production of awareness raising and educational packages for children and adolescents.


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شهریور 96 - برنامه عمران ملل متحد: انتشاراسناد جدید به مناسبت روز جهانی ازُن

به مناسبت روز جهانی ازُن، برنامه عمران ملل متحد در جمهوری اسلامی ایران، اسناد تازه را در مورد "طرح مدیریت فرآیند حذف هیدروکلروفلروکربن ها" منتشر کرده است. 

برای خواندن این سند اینجا کلیک کنید. 


شهریور 96 - سازمان ملل: تعداد گرسنگان جهان پس از یک دهه کاهش بار دیگر افزایش یافت

جدیدترین گزارش سازمان ملل درباره امنیت غذایی و تغذیه در جهان حاکی از این است که نرخ گرسنگی پس از یک دهه کاهش بار دیگر روند صعودی طی کرده و در سال 2016 در حدود 815 میلیون نفر، معادل 11 درصد جمعیت جهان، دچار گرسنگی و سوءتغذیه بوده‌اند.

به گزارش دفتر نمایندگی سازمان خواربار و کشاورزی ملل متحد (فائو) در ایران، سازمان ملل در گزارش سالیانه خود با عنوان «وضعیت امنیت غذایی و تغذیه در جهان (2017)» با اشاره به اینکه انواع مختلف سوءتغذیه سلامتی میلیون‌ها نفر را در سراسر جهان تهدید می‌کند، اعلام کرده افزایش 38 میلیونی در تعداد افراد گرسنه نسبت به سال گذشته میلادی ناشی از گسترش مناقشات خشونت‌آمیز و بحران‌های اقلیمی بوده است.

بنا بر این گزارش، 155 میلیون کودک زیر 5 سال دچار کوتاهی قد نسبت به سن‌ بوده و 52 میلیون کودک نیز از وزن پایین نسبت به قدشان رنج می‌برند. برآوردها حاکی از این است که 41 میلیون کودک نیز دچار اضافه وزن هستند. کم‌خونی در میان زنان و چاقی بزرگسالان نیز از عوامل نگرانی اعلام شده‌اند. علاوه بر مناقشات و تغییرات اقلیمی می‌توان تغییرات گسترده در عادات رژیم غذایی و نیز بحران‌های اقتصادی را از عوامل وضعیت جاری برشمرد.

این گزارش اولین ارزیابی جهانی سازمان ملل درباره امنیت غذایی و سوءتغذیه است که پس از تصویب برنامه 2030 برای توسعه پایدار، ارائه می‌شود. پایان دادن به تمام اشکال گرسنگی و سوءتغذیه یکی از اولویت‌های اصلی بین‌المللی برنامه توسعه پایدار است.

رؤسای سازمان‌های فائو، صندوق بین‌المللی توسعه کشاورزی، یونیسف، برنامه جهانی غذا و سازمان بهداشت جهانی در کنفرانس مشترک رونمایی از این گزارش اعلام کردند: «در یک دهه گذشته، تعداد مناقشات افزایش چشمگیری داشته، پیچیده‌تر شده و کنترل آنها نیز سخت‌تر گشته است.» رؤسای کارگزاری‌های سازمان ملل تأکید کردند که بخش اعظمی از کودکان دچار ناامنی غذایی و سوءتغذیه در مناطق جنگ‌زده زندگی می‌کنند. 

یافته‌های گزارش سازمان ملل نشان می‌دهد هم‌اکنون 815 میلیون نفر دچار گرسنگی هستند که از این تعداد 520 میلیون نفر در آسیا، 243 میلیون نفر در آفریقا و 42 میلیون نفر در آمریکای لاتین و منطقه کارائیب زندگی می‌کنند. بر همین اساس، 11 درصد از مجموع جمعیت جهان از گرسنگی رنج می‌برند که سهم آسیا از این رقم 11.7 درصد، آفریقا 20 درصد (در شرق آفریقا 33.9 درصد) و آمریکای لاتین و منطقه کارائیب 6.6 درصد است.

آمار ارائه شده در گزارش «وضعیت امنیت غذایی و تغذیه در جهان (2017)» حاکی از این است که قد 155 میلیون کودک زیر پنج سال نسبت به سن‌شان پایین مانده است. 122 میلیون نفر در کشورهایی زندگی می‌کنند که دچار سطوح مختلفی از مناقشات هستند. 52 میلیون کودک نیز از وزن پایین نسبت به قدشان رنج می‌برند در حالیکه 41 میلیون کودک زیر 5 سال اضافه وزن دارند. تعداد بزرگسالان دچار اضافه‌وزن بالغ بر 641 میلیون نفر (13 درصد کل بزرگسالان جهان) است. همچنین تعداد زنانی که در سن باروری بوده و از کم‌خونی رنج می‌برند 613 میلیون نفر (در حدود 33 درصد مجموع زنان جهان) قید شده است.

شایان ذکر است 489 میلیون نفر از مجموع 815 میلیون جمعیت گرسنه جهان در کشورهای دچار جنگ زندگی می‌کنند. شیوع گرسنگی در کشورهای متأثر از مناقشات 1.4 الی 4.4 درصد بیشتر از دیگر کشورها است. در مناطقی که جنگ توأم با از بین رفتن محیط زیست و نهادهای دولتی است شیوع گرشنگی 11 الی 18 درصد بیشتر سایر مناطق است. مردمی که در کشورهای جنگ‌زده زندگی می‌کنند 2.5 برابر بیش از مردم سایر نقاط در معرض سوءتغذیه قرار دارند.


17 September 2017 - World hunger again on the rise, driven by conflict and climate change, new UN report says

After steadily declining for over a decade, global hunger is on the rise again, affecting 815 million people in 2016, or 11 per cent of the global population, says a new edition of the annual United Nations report on world food security and nutrition released today.

According to a press release published by the FAO Representation in the Islamic Republic of Iran, The multiple forms of malnutrition are threatening the health of millions worldwide. The increase - 38 million more people than the previous year - is largely due to the proliferation of violent conflicts and climate-related shocks, according to The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017.

Some 155 million children aged under five are stunted (too short for their age), the report says, while 52 million suffer from wasting, meaning their weight is too low for their height. An estimated 41 million children are now overweight. Anaemia among women and adult obesity are also cause for concern. These trends are a consequence not only of conflict and climate change but also of sweeping changes in dietary habits as well as economic slowdowns.

The report is the first UN global assessment on food security and nutrition to be released following the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which aims to end hunger and all forms of malnutrition by 2030 as a top international policy priority.

"Over the past decade, conflicts have risen dramatically in number and become more complex and intractable in nature," the heads of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) said in their joint foreword to the report. They stressed that some of the highest proportions of food-insecure and malnourished children in the world are now concentrated in conflict zones.

Overall number of hungry people in the world is 815 million, including: 520 million in Asia, 243 million in Africa, and 42 million in Latin America and the Caribbean. Accordingly, the share of the global population who are hungry is 11%, including: 11.7% in Asia, 20% in Africa (in eastern Africa, 33.9%), and 6.6% in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Based on the recent findings 155 million children under 5 years of age suffer from stunted growth (height too low for their age). Also 122 million are living in countries affected by varying levels of conflict. Meanwhile, 52 million Children under 5 are affected by wasting (weight too low given their height).

The annual United Nations report on world food security and nutrition suggests that 641 million adults (13% of all adults on the planet) are obese, while 41 million children under 5 are overweight. Number of women of reproductive age affected by anaemia is 613 million (around 33% of the total)

Conflicts play a crucial role in increasing trend of food insecurity and malnutrition. 489 million of 815 million hungry people on the planet live in countries affected by conflict. The prevalence of hunger in countries affected by conflict is 1.4 - 4.4 percentage points higher than in other countries. Also, in conflict settings compounded by conditions of institutional and environmental fragility, the prevalence is 11 and 18 percentage points higher. People living in countries affected by protracted crises are nearly 2.5 times more likely to be undernourished than people elsewhere.


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Remarks on the occasion of the International Day for Reservation of the Ozone Layer and 30th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol

rc logo125


The ozone layer is a fragile shield of gas. 

It protects the Earth from the harmful portion of the rays of the sun.

In this way, it helps preserve life on our planet.

The phase-out of controlled uses of ozone depleting substances – or ODS – have helped protect the ozone layer for current and future generations.

It has also contributed significantly to global efforts to address climate change.

More than this, it has protected human health and ecosystems by limiting the harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earth.

Today we celebrate International Ozone Day here in Iran. 

But we also celebrate the 30th Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

The original purpose of the Montreal Protocol was to cut production and consumption of chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs).

The Montreal Protocol has been one of the most successful multilateral environmental agreements. 

It has been responsible for phasing out nearly 100% of ODSs.

As a result, the ozone layer is showing early signs of thickening after years of depletion.  This has been confirmed by both UN Environment and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

But more work is required.

The Parties to the Montreal Protocol reached an agreement at their 28th Meeting on 15 October 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda. 

This agreement is intended to phase-out hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

The amendment presents many opportunities:

  • improving the environment,
  • improving refrigeration and air-conditioning systems,
  • improving energy efficiency – which corresponds to our SDG 7.

Ladies and gentlemen, it is critical now for industry, governmental bodies and civil society to work together to adopt greener technologies in each country of the world and fight global warming.

We encourage the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran to take the important step of reviewing and then approving the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.

Collaboration between Iran and the UN

Since 1990, Iran has achieved its phase-out targets for CFCs, halons, Carbon tetrachloride, Methyl chloroform and methyl bromide.

Since 2012, in partnership with the United Nations, Iran has been implementing the HCFC Phase-out Management Plan – or the HPMP as we call it on a daily basis.

Under this project, the Government of Iran committed itself to a HCFC freeze in 2013 and a 10% reduction in 2015.

These targets have both been fully achieved as a result of HPMP implementation.

  • For example, Iran has reduced Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) consumption from 380.5 Ozone-Depleting-Potential tons in 2013 to 342.45 ODP tons in 2015.

This success is the result of the strong cooperation between Iran’s National Ozone Unit and international agencies such as UNDP, UNIDO and UN Environment – with support from the Government of Germany.

UNDP activities cover:

  • conversion of one domestic air-conditioning manufacturer through modification of the fabrication and assembly line,
  • support to Iran’s oversight and law enforcement efforts,
  • and training and education programmes.

Given our project’s combined success, Iran should be referred to as a regional Best Practice in achieving the HCFC reduction targets.

I would like to pay tribute to the work of the National Ozone Unit in the Department of Environment.  This is the lead technical unit to implement the project. 

But this success would not have been possible without also the support of the National Ozone Committee and Ozone cells throughout the country – as well as other governmental, non-governmental and private sector stakeholders.

As the next step, HCFC consumption must reach to 266.35 ODP tons from 1 January 2018.

This can be contributed to through the implementation of the second phase of the HPMP project which is in its final stages of approval and will start towards the end of 2017.

During the Stage 2, the Department of Environment of Iran (National Ozone Unit) will cooperate with UN agencies such as UNDP, UNIDO, UN Environment and GIZ.

The Way forward for the Government of Iran and the UN

The United Nations Development Assistance Framework (2017-2021) is our overall partnership strategy for cooperating with Iran. 

One of its 4 main components is devoted entirely to environment. 

Under the environment pillar, there are 2 outcomes which include integrated natural resource management and low carbon economy and climate change. 

Several UN agencies in Iran are themselves directly engaged in this work.  Our main job is to work with our Government partners and other international agencies, to bring in community partnership, and to link Iran to best practices from other countries.

In conclusion, the Montreal Protocol has been a phenomenal success.  And – yes – Iran has played a great part in this success.

But immense challenges lie ahead if we are to preserve our livelihoods and living standards in Iran and across the planet. 

And the only way to solve them will be through a combination of:

  • Knowledge,
  • Agreements and firm commitments,
  • Institutional capacity,
  • Regional Cooperation and, perhaps most importantly of all,

I believe that the United Nations has been a reliable, supportive and strong partner in Iran’s environmental sustainability. 

With our 60-year-old track record of working in partnership with Iran, we look forward to strengthening our partnership and contributing to Iran’s attainment of the SDGs – especially those relating to climate action and energy efficiency.


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